Put simply, in networking, a model is term that describe how a computer should be set up so that it can communicate with other computers. Let us use humanity as an example.
As you may well know, humans and virtually every living creature has an in born need to connect to others of its kind. The question is, why is that so, is it just because we have mouth that enable us to talk, and ears that enable us to hear? No, basically it is because of our DNA, and our ability to hear and understand what is being said.
Similarly, just because a computer has an interconnectivity port (Ethernet port) does not mean it should be able to communicate and share data to every computer it is connected to.
So, for a computer to be able to communicate to another computer, there need to be a set down rules it must follow, and requirements it must meet.
These rules and requirements that a computer intending to communicate with another computer must follow is called a Model.
In networking terms, a network model is an architectural term that describe how communication between systems is accomplished.
See also: FIX: Computer is stuck on 169 IP address
Type of Models
There are different types of network models. The list below holds the name of some of them:
- Systems Network Architecture (SNA-IBM)
- Novell Netware (IPX/SPX)
- Network Basic Input Output System (Net-BIOS)
- Sequenced Packet Exchange/Internet Packet Exchange (SPX/ IPX)
- Open System Interconnection (OSI)
- Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
Many of the network models outlined above have become absolute basically because of the popularity of the TCP/IP model, which is considered the protocol for the internet.
Hence, if you are new to networking, TCP/IP is mostly likely the model you should be interested in researching upon.
Network Model Layers
For a human to be able to talk/communicate with others properly, there are several organs that needs to function well. The brain which formulate the words, to the neurons that transport the words, to the vocal cords that forms the sounds, to the mouth and tongue that actually voice it out.
All these organs are essential to the communication process of humans.
In the same way, the various processes that prepares the data a computer wants to send to another is called the network model layers.
As mentioned earlier, there are several network models. As a result, there are several layers associated with each particular networking model.
For the purpose of simplicity, I will only be outlining the layers of the Open System Interconnection (OSI) and the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) models.
The Open System Interconnection (OSI) Model Layers
The OSI model has 7 layers. These are:
- Data link
The Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Model Layers
Unlike the OSI model which has 7 layers, the TCP/IP model has just 4 layers. These are:
- Network Interface
In networking, model is a term used to describe how interconnectivity between computers in a network is achieved.
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